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Diacetyl and Acetyl Propionyl. What is it?

What is Diacetyl and Acetyl Propionyl and why should I care?

DAP, Popcorn lung, everyone has heard about this in the news with Anti-Vaping media trying to scare people off e-cigarettes and keep them on much unhealthier cigarettes.

The good news is in today’s world DAP has been virtually banned in food flavourings (particularly e-liquids) across the Western World since around 2016 and in general was only ever present in butter, dairy and brown (caramel, butterscotch & coffee) flavours.

The term Popcorn lung originated from a US group of popcorn factory workers who were basically living and breathing Diacetyl flavours without appropriate protection causing lung scarring which of course gave cause to Global Health Authorities waking up to the dangers of Diacetyl.  Something to note, is that burning Marijuana causes the same issues to the lungs as Diacetyl in recent studies too.

This is why Mixology Vape stays well clear of any e-liquids not produced in countries with Westernized food regulations, like China and some other countries which are yet to catch up to these food standards. There’s a reason why we are so against these Chinese disposables such as Iget, HQD, Cuvie, Gunnpod etc. Think twice before you decide to put any of those in your body…. If you do wish to vape disposables please use regulated disposable brands such as the ones we sell at Mixology Vape NZ.

For a more detailed analysis of the world that was before 2016, some interesting data can be seen below from 2014:

Independent Toxicologist, R. Patrick Rainey, Ph.D., DABT, recently performed an evaluation of the use of Diacetyl and Acetyl Propionyl in e-liquid. His conclusion was:

“Upon critical evaluation of the available toxicology and epidemiology data described within this monograph and more thoroughly within the associated references, along with the smoking behavior data collected on both human subjects and CF-PD simulations describing compensatory smoking behaviors and more deep lung exposures from e-cigs/vaporizers, it is concluded that diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione should not be considered as candidates for flavoring in the e-cig/vaporizer solution. Furthermore, any consideration of reactive volatile organic carbonyl compounds for inclusion into the e-cig/vaporizer solution should be thoroughly evaluated based upon the most recent toxicological and epidemiological data.”

To read the full paper you can find it here:

Dr. Konstantinos Farsalinos published in the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research, evaluating the presence of two inhalation toxins (diacetyl and acetyl propionyl) in e-cigarette liquids. Researchers, led by Dr, Konstantinos Farsalinos from the Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center in Athens-Greece, obtained 159 e-liquid samples (all sweet-flavored) from 36 manufactures and 7 countries (6 European and the US). They tested them for the presence of diacetyl and acetyl propionyl. These two chemicals are ingredients of flavorings and, although safe for use in food, have been associated with the development of respiratory dysfunction when inhaled.

The study found that 74.2% of the samples contained either diacetyl or acetyl propionyl, with more samples containing diacetyl. The levels were on average slightly lower than currently-established safety limits (set by NIOSH), but more than 40% of the samples had higher than safety levels. Of note, the highest amount of diacetyl found was 495 times higher than safety limits, while for acetyl propionyl it was 22 times higher. Tobacco cigarette smoke contains both compounds, at levels 100 times higher for diacetyl and 10 times higher for acetyl propionyl compared to e-cigarette average daily exposure.

You can find more information here:


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